Basically there are 3 types of fermentation. First is lactic acid fermentation that convert sugar to acids by bacteria with finished products such as yoghurt and kefir. Second is ethanol fermentation that convert sugar to alcohol by yeast with finished products such as beer, wine and whiskey. Third is aerobic respiration that convert sugar to more energy, single cell protein, by fungi in aerobic condition with finished product such as tempeh. Actually, in nature there are 2 more types of fermentation by the combination of 2 groups of microorganisms: bacteria and yeast such as kombucha and fermentation by the combination of all the 3 groups of microorganisms: bacteria, yeasts, and fungi with finished product such as tapeh.
If it is well prepared with hygienic, quality control and moderate consumption, fermented food and drink are always good for modern human because naturally human had never tasted and gotten health benefits experience with these kinds of fermented products before. It has been proven that the compost worms or red wigglers like the brewery waste to grow.
Burnaby Red Wigglers has been working with the healthy fermented food and drink and their organic waste for many years. After visiting Java, China and Japan this July/August 2015, Burnaby Red Wigglers plan to develop the home scale of making fermented soybean (tempeh), fermented tea (kombucha) and fermented glutinous rice or cassava (tapeh). Burnaby Red Wigglers also develops the method of vermiculture – vermicomposting using the brewery waste including soy waste from a tofu and soy milk factory to produce worm castings or vermicompost to feed the soil for organic farming – aquaponic and worm protein for animal feed and pharmaceutical purposes in the near future.
Tempeh or fermented soybean is a cultured cake of beans that has been a staple food in Java, Indonesia for centuries. It is made by cooking then de-hulling grains and inoculating them with a single fungi culture called Rhizopus oligosporus. The product is then incubated overnight at the room temperature. Tempeh is already delicious and digestible without adding preservatives and sodium. People eat this vegetarian food tempeh for a wide variety of reasons, from nutritional to environmental and ethical: cholesterol free protein, good source of fiber, rich in phytoestrogen, and good for the earth. Hunger and many of the worlds’ environmental problems are directly linked to the animal agricultural system, by clearing land to raise cattle in developing countries. Tempeh or other plant protein is to replace and honor our fellow animal passengers on spaceship earth.
The origin of kombucha or fermented tea drink has become lost in the mists of time. What is certain? however, is that it originated in the Far East and has been consumed there for many thousand years. When kombucha is brewed correctly, it will really produce an awesome taste like a sharp apple cider and have a more delicate, light wine flavor. Though each batch is different, it depends mainly on the type of tea used (green, black, oolong, white teas and their varieties). Kombucha usually has little bubbles of carbonic acid in it and can be slightly effervescent. The most important properties of kombucha are the various organic acids produced by the cellulose pancake culture, the symbiotic of yeasts (e.g. Saccharomyces ludwigii, Saccharomyces apiculatus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Pichia fermentans) and bacteria (e.g. Bacterium xylinum, Bacterium xylinoides, Bacterium gluconicum, Acetobacter ketogenum, Totula varieties). The main role of kombucha is prevention and for diet rather than cure serious illnesses. Variety of organic acids such as lactic, acetic, usnic, gluconic, glucuronic acids and vitamins B groups and C may be produced during the slower fermentation of making kombucha.
Tapeh is a popular Javanese solid delicacy with a sweet-cider taste and alcoholic flavor. It is prepared by fermenting glutinous white or black rice or a cassava tuber. There are at least 3 symbiotic beneficial microorganisms that are involved during the fermentation of making tapeh, they are fungi (Chlamydomucor oryzae), yeast (Endomycopsis fibuliger), and bacteria (Pediococcus spp). The close relatives of tapeh come from the Asian-Pacific, Latin American, and African regions. The Regions are characterized by their tropical and subtropical humid climate, which are suitable for rice paddy, cassava/yucca tuber cultivation and beneficial microorganisms to grow. The nutrition facts of tapeh: total crude protein 10 – 16 %, soluble crude protein: 5 – 6 %, Alcohol 5 – 8% by vol.
Naturally, the compost worms or red wigglers and the symbiotic beneficial soil microbes inside the worm gut accept and enjoy the fermented food and drink wastes including brewery waste with carbon nitrogen ratio around 30 and moisture 80% to conserve water, also soy waste from a tofu and soy milk factory. The red wigglers and the beneficial soil microbes convert the brewery waste become high quality of vermicompost and protein.
Photos clockwise start from the upper left: 1. Tempeh, 2. Kombucha, 3. Slurry and solid wastes from a beer factory, 3. Soy waste from a soy milk factory.
Please contact http://www.burnabyredwigglers.com to find the opportunies of home scale experience with tempeh, kombucha and tapeh also to do consultation for resource – brewery waste management using red wigglers to produce a high quality vermicompost and worm protein. Bintoro Gunadi